1757 '58 '59
Friday, January 20, 1758
Read a letter from Charles Lawrence, Esquire, Governor of Nova Scotia, to the Board, dated at Halifax, November 9th, 1757, transmitting the following papers, and containing his observations on some articles in the estimate for 1758.
Estimate of expence that will arise in supporting and maintaining the province of Nova Scotia in the year 1758.
Minutes of Council from the 3rd of October, 1756, to the 14th December, 1757.
Naval officer's list of ships and vessels that have entered and cleared at the Port of Halifax between the 1st of July and 31st of December, 1756.
Letter from Mr. Saul, Commissary of Stores, to Governor Lawrence, dated November the 11th, 1757.
Ordered, that the said letter and papers be taken into further consideration on Monday next, and that Mr. Parker, acting as agent for the settlement of the colony of Nova Scotia, have notice to attend the Board on that day.
Monday, January 23, 1758
The Secretary then communicated to the Board a letter he had received from Mr. Parker, acting as agent for the settlement of the colony of Nova Scotia, acquainting him that he was confined to his chamber by a severe fit of the gout, and not able to attend the Board as desired, but hoped to give his attendance in a few days.
Their lordships took into further consideration the letter from the Governor of Nova Scotia and the papers transmitted with it mentioned in yesterday's minutes and made some further progress therein.
Tuesday, January 24, 1758
Their lordships made a further progress in the consideration of the letter and papers from the Governor of Nova Scotia mentioned in the preceding minutes.
Wednesday, January 25, 1758
Their lordships made a further progress in the consideration of the letter and papers received from the Governor of Nova Scotia mentioned in the preceding minutes.
Ordered, that an extract be made of so much of the said letter as relates to the want of an immediate supply of bedding for the troops and cloathing for the Rangers,NOTE 1 and also an account made out of the several particulars contained in the estimate for 1758, of what is represented to be necessary for the further security and defence of the province, and the service of the troops stationed there, for the further consideration of the Board at their next meeting.
Thursday, January 26, 1758
The Secretary laid before the Board the following papers prepared pursuant to the preceding day's minutes, viz.:–
Extract of a letter from Charles Lawrence, Esquire, Governor of Nova Scotia, to the Board, dated November 9th, 1757, relating to the want of an immediate supply of bedding for the troops and cloathings for the Rangers.NOTE 1
NOTE 1: These “Rangers” were a small group of men selected
by John Gorham for their ability to engage in what is now known
as guerrilla warfare. Gorham's company of Rangers proved to be
very useful in the North American sector of the ancient conflict –
it had been active in Europe for at least seven centuries, beginning
in 1066 – between England and France. Gorham's Rangers was
one of the most famous and effective units raised in colonial North
America and served as the prototype for many subsequent ranger
forces, including the better known Rogers' Rangers.
The unit began as a Massachusetts provincial auxiliary company,
recruited in the summer of 1744 at the start of King George's War.
Massachusetts Governor William Shirley – who then was responsible
for the defense of British interests in Nova Scotia – ordered the unit
raised as reinforcements for the then-besieged British garrison at
Fort Anne in Annapolis Royal. In 1747, its strength was increased
to 100 men. Two years later, a second company of equal strength
and a third of 50 men were raised among colonists in Nova Scotia.
In the late 1740s and the early 1750s the unit proved remarkably
effective at suppressing Acadian and Mi'kmaq resistance to British
rule in Nova Scotia and helped to both expand and secure the British
sphere of influence in the region. Initially a sixty man all-Indian
company led by British colonial officers, the original Native American
members of the unit were gradually replaced by Anglo-Americans
and recent Scots and Irish immigrants and were a minority in the unit
by the mid-1750s. The company were reconnaissance experts as
well as renowned for their expertise at both water-borne operations
and frontier guerrilla warfare. They were known for surprise
amphibious raids on Acadian and Mi'kmaq coastal or riverine
settlements, using large whaleboats, which carried between ten to
fifteen rangers each. This small unit was the main British military
force defending Nova Scotia from 1744 to 1749.
The company became part of the British army and was expanded
during the Seven Years War and went on to play an important role
in fighting in Nova Scotia as well as participating in many of the
important campaigns of the war. On the eve of the Seven Years War,
a French report estimated that the corps consisted of 120 men.
Gorham's Rangers were considered by the British to be very
effective, and this company formed the core of a battalion of North
American Rangers raised during the Seven Years War (1756-1763).
There is an administrative detail that is important. Although the
Nova Scotia Rangers were raised in 1744 by order of the legislative
assembly of Massachusetts, England gave its approval and provided
financing. Three years after this decision, Captain Gorham received
a royal commission and the company was paid out of the British
treasury. As a result, this corps, constituted largely of Amerindians
and Métis, was henceforth part of the regular British army. This meant
that the Nova Scotia Rangers were the first regular corps raised in the
British colonies in Canada.
• Gorham's Rangers Kronoskaf
• Military history of Nova Scotia Wikipedia
• John Gorham by Peter Landry
• Gorham's Rangers Wikipedia
• and others
[This note does not appear in the original Board of Trade records.]
Account of several military services, the charge of which is stated in the estimate for Nova Scotia for 1758, transmitted by Governor Lawrence to the Board, and represented by him to be necessary for the further security and defence of that province and the military establishment there.
Friday, January 27, 1758
Read a petition of Ferdinando John Paris, gentleman, to this Board, dated the 26th of January, 1758, in behalf of the freeholders at Halifax in Nova Scotia, complaining of several grievances sustained by the inhabitants of the said colony, and inclosing:–
State of facts relating to the complaint of the freeholders in Nova Scotia.
Appendix to the state of facts.
Resolved. that the said memorial and papers be taken into consideration on Tuesday next, the 31st instant; and Mr. Paris. the memorialist. attending without, was called in and acquainted therewith. and that the Board will be ready on that day to hear anything he may have to offer upon it.
Preparations for the Calling
Tuesday. January 31, 1758
Their lordships pursuant to the preceding minutes took into consideration the memorial of Mr. Paris, agent for the freeholders of Nova Scotia. and the papers referred to therein: and Mr. Paris attending as desired with Mr. Forrester, his counsel, they were called in, together with Mr. Bower, an inhabitant of the said province, lately arrived from thence; and Mr. Forrester having opened the nature and effect of the several matters complained of by the said freeholders, and Mr. Bower having been examined touching the alledged declining state of the colony and some particular injury alledged to have been sustained by him from proceedings of the Governor and other officers of government there. Which he stated to be arbitrary and illegal, and several depositions made by persons resident in the said province, touching injurys sustained by them by the proceedings of the Governor and his officers, having also been read, Mr. Forrester then moved their lordships that they would be pleased to advise and recommend to his Majesty to issue his Royal Instruction to the Governor and Commander in Chief in Nova Scotia for the time being, that he do forthwith and without delay proceed to call a General Assembly or House of Representatives in that province under such qualifications and regulations as their lordships shall think fit to offer to his Majesty's consideration.
That with respect to the plan proposed by the Governor and Council for calling an Assembly in their declaration of the 3rd of January, 1757. Mr. Forrester observed that the freeholders are intitled to such an Assembly as other colonies have, namely to have a free Assembly to be elected by themselves; but the proposition is so framed that the Governor really and in substance may nominate more than two thirds of the members.
|That the declaration proposes|
that members should be returned
for the province at large
|For the township of Halifax||4|
That as to the inhabitants of Lunenburg, they are foreigners, such as Germans, Swiss and French Roman Catholicks; the inhabitants at Lunenburg are more than all the other English inhabitants in the colony; many of them have been there seven years, and therefore under the Act of the 13th of his present Majesty, claim to be intitled to the privilege of subjects; but even freeholders, natural born subjects in their circumstances, it's apprehended ought not yet to vote at all, in electing any members (more especially, not in electing 14 out of the 22 members) because they are upon the foot of poor persons subsisted by charity, indeed by the charity of this nation, though made to believe that they owe it to the Governor's benevolence, so that to let them at present vote for 14 members would be effectually to give the Governor the power of nominating so many himself.
That as to the inhabitants of Lawrence Town, of Annapolis, and of Cumberland, it is proposed that each of these townships (as called) should elect one member for itself, and join in the election of 12 more, for the province at large; even now, while they are so inconsiderable, as that the inhabitants of Cumberland consist of five old serjeants and soldiers, all sutlers to the garrison there, and subject to military law (for none other was ever heard of in that place); Lawrence Town consists of three sutlers subject to the direction of the proprietors of that tract, and under their influence, and the town decaying every day; and Annapolis is a garrison, of the like sort of inhabitants and a place of no significancy to the Crown.
That it is humbly apprehended that the proposing that those three towns, in such circumstances, should send each their own particular member, and should also join in choosing twelve other members for the province at large, manifestly shews, either one or both of the following matters:–
1st. That the inhabitants are reduced to a very small number, or
2ndly. That the Governor desires to have the nomination of the greater part of the Assembly.
That as to the qualification and disqualification of the electors and elected, one of the qualifications of the electors and elected is the having a freehold in the place, where voted for, or where elected; but the value of such freehold in either person is not at all limited; so that persons of the very lowest condition, if they have but any such freehold, of ever so mean a value, may elect or be elected, which is conceived not to be agreeable to the British Constitution, nor to the practice in other colonies, and whereby the members may possibly consist of the lowest and most unfit persons to the exclusion of those of the best property and substance; and it is submitted how reasonable or proper it may be to confine the member's qualification to a freehold in that particular district, for which he is to be chosen, since a more proper person might be chosen, who has a proper freehold though not in that district. It is therefore humbly submitted whether the yearly value of the freehold to intitle a freeholder to elect, and the yearly value of the member's freehold to make him capable of being elected should not be ascertained, and whether the member's having a freehold of such value in any part of the province is not a reasonable and proper qualification.
That the declaration excludes non-commissioned officers and private soldiers from voting, by virtue of any dwelling built upon sufferance or by virtue of any possession of freehold, unless the same be registered to him, but it does not exclude even such from being elected members.
That under this head it may be proper to pray that no soldier may at any rate be allowed to vote, there being 3,000 soldiers there, and the inhabitants not more than half that number, so that if soldiers were permitted to vote, and any the smallest freehold (were it but the hundredth part of an acre) was to be a qualification, the other inhabitants can have but little hopes of being represented.
That the declaration provides that the voters, if required, should take the usual State oaths, and declare and subscribe the TestNOTE 2, and take the oath therein mentioned, but, which is very wonderfull, requires no such matter of the candidates or persons to be elected.
NOTE 2: The Test Acts — which in the late 1600s became
the law in England and its colonies, including English colonies
in North America — required a person to publicly state their
religion or religious beliefs in order to determine their eligibility
for public office. The Church of England (Anglican Church)
was the official religion of England. Roman Catholics, and
other (non-Anglican) Protestants, were not allowed to hold
office under these acts.
The earliest imposition of this test under the force of law,
was by the Corporation Act of 1661.
The first officially titled “Test Act” became law in 1673.
Before 1 May 1707, these laws applied to England and its
colonies, including English colonies in North America.
After the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain
on 1 May 1707, these laws applied to Great Britain and its
colonies, including British colonies in North America.
In the 1750s the Test Acts were still in force in Nova Scotia.
Persons taking public office were required to make declarations,
under oath, renouncing papal authority and transubstantiation
– this no conscientious Catholic could be expected to do.
[This note does not appear in the original Board of Trade records.]
That the declaration provided that the precept for convening the first Assembly should be made returnable in sixty days, and the reason given for it in express words is, "On account of the present rigorous season," from whence persons of plain understanding imagined the precept was to issue instantly during the then present, rigorous season. It is now thirteen months since the date of that declaration, and all the seasons of the year have succeeded, but the precept not issued.
That the freeholders rest assured that his most sacred Majesty and the Lords of Trade intended they should have an Assembly, not in name only, but in reality, to be freely elected by the persons of property settled there, and not to be either directly or consequentially nominated by the Governor or elected by the troops, and are perfectly satisfied that their lordships know what is best and most fit for the service of the province and will advise the Assembly to be constituted under such regulations as to answer his Majesty's most gracious intentions.
With respect to the other matters complained of in the agent's memorial, Mr. Forrester moved that their lordships would please to transmit the present petition, and the articles annexed thereto unto the several persons complained of, namely:–
Charles Lawrence, Esquire, the present Governor.
Captain William Cotterell, the Governor's Secretary, the Overseer of the Works, the Clerk in Chancery, and the Collector of the Rum Duty.
Lieutenant Richard Bulkley, another Overseer of the King's Works, the Commissary for Rum and Molasses, and a Disposer of Contracts for publick works there.
Benjamin Green, Esquire, one of his Majesty's Council there, the Treasurer, the Naval Officer, the Receiver of the Rum Duty, and another Disposer of Contracts there, and to
Mr. Thomas Saul, Clerk or Agent to the Contractor, the Commissary of Provisions, the Commissary of Dry Stores and the Supplyer of Dollars,
and require them to return forthwith their answers thereto in writing to their lordships, and also to deliver a true copy of the same so soon as prepared to any agent there in behalf of the petitioners who shall request the same:
That in the meantime the petitioners or their agent may have free liberty to take out a summons from any judge, magistrate or justice in Nova Scotia, for their witnesses, whom they shall name, and to examine or take the affidavits or depositions in writing upon oath or affirmation, of such witnesses before such judge, magistrate or justice, to be attested by such judge, magistrate or justice:
That the petitioners or their agent may also have free liberty to examine, search and take copies of any records, and of the Acts and minutes of any court or of the Council, and also the entries in any books containing publick accounts, and to have the same attested by the respective proper officers upon payment of the legal and accustomed fees only for the same:
That the Governor or Commander in Chief there for the time being do instantly upon request sign and affix the province Seal to the usual testimonials to be affixed to all such papers, that such and such persons before whom the proofs shall be made, are such and such judges, magistrates and justices there, and that such and such persons who shall attest the copies of the records, Acts, minutes and entries, are the respective proper officers to attest the same, and that without the Governor, or any his Secretary, or Deputy Secretary, or other officer demanding, or having the same left with him in order to read over, or consider, or take copys or extracts of any one of the papers to be authenticated:
That their lordships will please to require that the freeholders, their committee and agents and witnesses and the judges, magistrates and justices and others who shall act herein, or any of them, be not any way molested, hindred, prevented or troubled in respect of presenting this complaint, or of any lawfull endeavours used, in order to the prosecution, proving or making out any of the several matters thereby complained of, and that the petitioners may have duplicates in the most authentick manner of their lordships' orders and directions to be made herein.
Mr. Forrester having nothing further to offer he withdrew, and their lordships after some time spent in the consideration of this affair resolved to take it into further consideration on Friday next, the 3rd instant, and the Secretary was ordered to give notice thereof to Mr. Paris, and also to Mr. Cotterell, Secretary of the province of Nova Scotia, now in England.
Ordered, that the Secretary do examine the books of this office with respect to any complaints which may have at any time been made of mal-administration and oppression in his Majesty's colonies in America and make report to the Board thereof and of the proceedings had and orders given thereupon.
Friday, February 3, 1758
Their lordships pursuant to the minutes of the 31st of last month, took into further consideration the petition of Mr. Paris, agent for the freeholders in Nova Scotia, and the papers presented therewith; and the Secretary having reported to their lordships several precedents of complaints made of mal-administration and oppression in the colonies, and also the proceedings had and orders given, their lordships after some time spent in the consideration thereof, and of what had been proposed by the petitioner's counsel, ordered Mr. Paris who was attending without to be called in.
Their lordships then observed to Mr. Paris that it appeared to them that his petition consisted of two parts;
1st. A representation of the necessity and expediency of having an Assembly or House of Representatives in Nova Scotia.
2nd. Complaint against the Governor and other officers of government there for mal-administration and oppression.
That with respect to the first point, their lordships should give directions to the Governor forthwith to call an Assembly or House of Representatives in such manner as should appear to them to be best adapted to the situation and circumstances of the colony.
With respect to the complaints against the Governor and other officers of government, their lordships observed that the papers annexed to the petition were of such a nature, and the charges contained in them were so blended together and intermixed with matter which had no relation whatever to any complaint against any particular person that they would not be admitted as articles of complaint, whereon the Board could found any orders or proceedings, and therefore it would be necessary that all such matter, contained in the petition and papers annexed as has no relation to any fact properly chargeable as matter of complaint against the said Governor and other officers, should be drawn out therefrom; and also the several charges against each particular officer likewise drawn out separately with the particular proofs upon which such charges are founded, in order that the Board might transmit to each of the persons complained of their particular parts only which relate to such person for his answer and defence, with directions that the complainants or their agents as well as the persons complained of or their agents should have free liberty to take depositions and examine witnesses before a proper magistrate touching the matters complained of in such manner, and under such regulations as have usually been practised in cases of the like kind, all which directions Mr. Paris said he would endeavour to comply with, and then he withdrew.
Mr. Cotterell, Secretary of the province of Nova Scotia, attending without pursuant to notice given him by the Secretary he was called in, and the petition of Mr. Paris and the papers annexed to it having been read to him, he withdrew.
Tuesday, February 7, 1758
Read a petition of Ferdinando John Paris, gentleman, agent for the freeholders in Nova Scotia, setting forth that upon consideration of what had been proposed by the Board at their last meeting respecting the complaints against the Governor and other officers of government in Nova Scotia, he did not think himself authorized to draw out any particular charge against any particular person from the paper as transmitted to him by the said freeholders, and annexed to his former petition, and therefore prayed the Board to give such directions upon the said papers as had been before prayed for by him.
Their lordships upon consideration of the said petitions and papers were of opinion that they were of such a nature that they could not admit them as regular articles of complaint against any person whatever, so as to ground any orders or proceedings thereupon, but when the persons who alledge themselves to be aggrieved by the said Governor and other officers shall think proper to exhibit in a regular manner articles of complaint against them supported by proper proofs, or shall shew that they have been denied the means of obtaining such proofs, the Board will receive the same and take such measures thereupon as have usually been taken in cases of the like nature; and Mr. Paris attending without was called in, and being acquainted with their lordships' resolutions upon the matter he declared himself satisfied therewith and then withdrew.
Their lordships then took into consideration the letter and papers from Mr. Lawrence, Governor of Nova Scotia, mentioned in the minutes of the 20th of January last, and after some time spent therein, the draught of a letter to him in answer thereto was prepared, agreed to, transcribed and signed
Wednesday, February 8, 1758
Their lordships took into consideration the extract of a letter from the Governor of Nova Scotia relating to the want of an immediate supply of bedding for the troops there and also an account of several military services, the charge of which is stated in the estimate for Nova Scotia for 1758, mentioned in the minutes of the 26th of January last; and a letter to Mr. Secretary Pitt inclosing the same, and proposing that the expence of the several articles therein contained may be defrayed in the same manner as other military contingent expences in America, was agreed to, transcribed and signed.
Wednesday, February 15, 1758
The Secretary laid before the Board two memorials prepared by Mr. Parker in behalf of the agent for Nova Scotia, to be presented to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, praying that the sums of £7,000 and £828 may be issued to him to discharge demands made for the service of Nova Scotia, and the said memorials having been approved, Mr. Parker was directed to present them to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury for their directions thereupon.
Tuesday, February 21, 1758
...their lordships took into consideration the estimate of the expences of supporting the settlement of Nova Scotia for the year 1758, transmitted with Mr. Lawrence's letter, mentioned in the minutes of the 20th of January last, and made some progress therein.
Ordered, that the Treasurer's accounts and vouchers of disbursements for the service of the said settlement in the year 1756, received with the said letter be delivered to the agent for Nova Scotia and that he be directed to prepare an account of money paid and charges incurred by supporting and maintaining the settlement of the colony of Nova Scotia for the year 1756, to be laid before the House of Commons pursuant to the order of that House of the 16th of February, 1756.
Wednesday, March 8, 1758
Read a letter from Mr. West, Secretary to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, dated the 7th instant, signifying the desire of their lordships, that this Board would lay before the House of Commons an estimate of the charges of supporting and maintaining the colony of Nova Scotia for the year 1758, pursuant to an address of that House to his Majesty.
Whereupon their lordships took into further consideration the estimate of the expences of supporting the settlement of Nova Scotia for the year 1758, received with Mr. Lawrence's letter, mentioned in the minutes of the 20th of January last, and also their lordships' letter to Mr. Secretary Pitt, mentioned in the minutes of the 8th of February last; and the draught of an estimate, to be laid before the House of Commons, having been agreed to, was transcribed, and Mr. Oswald was desired to present it to the House of Commons.
Ordered, that the Secretary do transmit a copy of the said estimate, and also a copy of the Board's letter to Mr. Secretary Pitt of the 8th of February last, and of the account therein mentioned, to Governor Lawrence for his information.
Thursday, March 9, 1758
Read the following Orders of the House of Commons, viz.:–
Mercurii 8o die Martii, 1758.
Ordered: "That there be laid before this House an account of the money paid and charges incurred by supporting and maintaining the settlement of his Majesty's colony of Nova Scotia from the 1st of January, 1756, to the 31st of December following."
Ordered: "That there be laid before this House an account of the money paid and charges incurred by supporting and maintaining the settlement of his Majesty's colony of Nova Scotia from the 1st of January, 1757, to the 31st of December following."
Ordered: that the Secretary do give notice to Mr. Parker, acting as agent for the settlement of Nova Scotia in behalf of Mr. KilbyNOTE 3, to attend the Board to-morrow morning.
NOTE 3: Christopher Kilby was born in Boston in May 1705.
He lived in Boston until late 1740, then moved to London.
He acted as agent 1741-1748, representing the interests of
the colony of Massachusetts Bay in London. One of his most
important jobs in this capacity was the procurement from the
British government of full reimbursement to Massachusetts for
the expenses of the Pepperrell expedition against Louisbourg
in 1745. He died in England in 1771. Kilby Street in downtown
Boston is named in his memory. In addition to acting as agent
for Massachusetts, he performed similar duties for other
colonies in North America. Christopher Kilby was the agent
for Nova Scotia in England 1749-1758 (followed by
Richard Cumberland 1758-1785).
[This note does not appear in the original Board of Trade records.]
Friday, March 10, 1758
Mr. Parker, acting as agent for Nova Scotia in behalf of Mr. Kilby, attending without, pursuant to notice given him by the Secretary for that purpose, was called in and presented to the Board an account of money paid and charges incurred by supporting and maintaining the settlement of his Majesty's colony of Nova Scotia for the year 1756, prepared pursuant to their lordships' order of the 21st of February last.
Tuesday, March 14, 1758
Their lordships took into consideration the account of money paid and charges incurred by supporting and maintaining the settlement of Nova Scotia for the year 1756, mentioned in the preceding minutes; and Mr. Oswald was desired to present the same to the House of Commons pursuant to their order, and to report to the House, that their order made upon Wednesday last, "that there be laid before this House an account of the money paid and charges incurred by supporting and maintaining the settlement of his Majesty's colony of Nova Scotia from the 1st of January, 1757, to the 31st of December following," cannot be at present complyed with, by reason the proper officers in the said colony have not transmitted any accounts of the expenditure or any vouchers for the payment of money for the year 1757, but that as soon as the accounts and vouchers shall be received, the account shall be made up with all possible dispatch, and laid before the House.
Wednesday, April 6, 1758
Ordered, that copies or extracts be made of all such letters from any of the governors or commanders in chief of his Majesty's colonies upon the continent of America as contain returns to the Board's circular letter to them of the 9th of June last, requiring an account of the quantity of iron made in the said colonies, in order that the said copies and extracts may be laid before the House of Commons, pursuant to their Address to his Majesty in the last session of Parliament.
Wednesday, April 12, 1758
The Secretary laid before the Board a memorial prepared by Mr. Cumberland, agent for Nova Scotia, to be presented to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, praying that the sum of fifteen thousand, five hundred and sixty-eight pounds, four shillings and two pence, may be issued to him out of the money granted for the service of that colony, to pay bills drawn by the Governor for dollars supplyed the Treasury there, and also to discharge other demands relative to the service of the said colony; and the said memorial having been approved, it was ordered, that Mr. Cumberland do present it to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury for their directions upon it.
Wednesday, April 26, 1758
Read a petition of Ann Wenman, matron of the orphan house at Halifax in Nova Scotia, praying for a yearly salary in consideration of her services and expences in the execution of that trust.
Ordered, that the Secretary do transmit a copy of the said petition to the Governor of Nova Scotia, for him to do in it as the nature of the case and the services of the petitioner shall appear to him to merit and require.
The Secretary laid before the Board copies and extracts of the several letters and papers received from the Governors or Commanders in Chief of his Majesty's colonies in America, respecting the quantity of ironNOTE 4 made in the said colonies between Christmas, 1749, and the 5th of January, 1756, together with a list of the said papers; and Mr. Oswald was desired to present them to the House of Commons, pursuant to their address to his Majesty of the 25th of May, 1757.
NOTE 4: This “iron made in the said colonies” was an important
component of the early industrial development of these colonies
– which later reached into Nova Scotia (for example the Annapolis
Iron Mining Company, organized in the 1820s in what is now
Annapolis County, Nova Scotia, which constructed and operated a
furnace for smelting iron and a forge and trip hammer for processing
pig iron). The Iron Act of 1750 was passed by the British
Parliament to encourage production of iron in quantity in the colonies
in the form of pig iron and bar iron; also to prevent manufacturing of
finished iron products in the colonies. This Act required that no mill
or other engine for rolling or slitting iron, no plating forge to work with
a tilt hammer, nor any furnace for making steel, should be erected in
the North American colonies, but exempting the country forges which
made bolts and nails and common farm implements. The statute of
1750 favored American bar iron and pig iron by removing the duties
to which they had hitherto been subject on importation to England,
while leaving intact those on Swedish and other foreign iron. This
was done for immediate political motives, in the hope of rendering
England independent of foreign sources of supply; and also for
mercantilist motives, to check the supposed drain of specie. But
to the credit of the government it may be remarked that the concession
was granted in the teeth of much opposition from English iron-masters
and owners of woodlands, and even from farmers. The consequence
of the removal of the duties was that in four years the quantity of
colonial pig iron imported into England increased by one-half; and
that it began, for the first time, to be profitable to carry bar iron
over the North Atlantic Ocean.
—Source: "The Commercial Legislation of England and
the American Colonies, 1660-1760" by W.J. Ashley.
Quarterly Journal of Economics v14 (November 1899) pages 1-29
[made available online by Dinsmore Documentation].
[This note does not appear in the original Board of Trade records.]
Thursday, June 1, 1758
Read a letter from Charles Lawrence, Esquire, Governor of Nova Scotia, to the Board, dated 12th February, 1758, relating to the accounts of the province, and inclosing:–
List of bills drawn by Governor Lawrence since the list sent by Admiral Holburne.
Friday, June 23, 1758
Read a letter from Charles Lawrence, Esquire, Governor of Nova Scotia, dated the 9th of May, 1758, acquainting the Board with the arrival of Admiral Boscawen at Halifax, and with the receipt of their letter respecting the establishing a House of Representatives.
Wednesday, July 5, 1758
The Secretary laid before the Board a memorial prepared by the agent for Nova Scotia to be presented to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, praying that the sum of seven thousand, one hundred and sixty-nine pounds and sixpence may be issued to him, to discharge expences incurred on account of the settlement of the said colony; and the said memorial having been approved, it was ordered, that the agent should present it to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury for their directions upon it.
Thursday, July 6, 1758
Read the following letters and papers received from the Governor of Nova Scotia, viz.:–
Letter from Mr. Lawrence, Governor of Nova Scotia, to the Board, dated Halifax, May 9th, 1758, inclosing:–
Abstract of the state of the money expended for the expedition against the French in the Bay of Fundy, and carrying on the works at Fort Cumberland.
Letter from Mr. Lawrence, Governor of Nova Scotia, to the Board, dated Halifax, May 20th, 1758, inclosing:–
Abstract of the money received on Governor Lawrence's bills, and paid by the Treasurer at Halifax between the 1st of January, 1755, and the 20th of May, 1758.
Letter from Mr. Lawrence, Governor of Nova Scotia, to the Board, dated Halifax, May 22nd, 1758, in answer to their lordships' letter of 7th February last, and transmitting:–
Copy of the minutes of Council on May 20th, 1758, relative to supplying the settlers at Lunenburg with provisions; to the convening an Assembly; and to the devolution of government in the absence of the Governor and Lieutenant Governor.
Thursday, August 3, 1758
The Secretary laid before the Board a memorial prepared by the agent of Nova Scotia to be presented to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, praying that the sum of £12,304. 17s. 10d. may be issued to him to discharge bills drawn upon him by the Governor of the said colony for publick services; and the said memorial having been approved, the agent was ordered to present it to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury for their directions upon it.
Wednesday, October 25, 1758
The Secretary acquainted the Board, that the agent for the settlement of Nova Scotia having during the recess prepared a memorial to be presented to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, praying that the sum of eight hundred, fifty-five pounds, one shilling and eightpence might be issued to him out of the remainder of the money granted by Parliament for the service of that colony to discharge certain demands for fees paid upon the receipt of money at the Exchequer, and for salary due to himself and the Chief Justice, he had thought it his duty, upon finding the contents to be just and true, to attest the same in the usual form, and to direct the agent to present it to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury for their directions upon it.
The Secretary reported to the Board a state of the several matters contained in the Board's last letter to the Governor of Nova Scotia, and in his letters in answer thereto, as also the number of shipping entered inwards and cleared outwards in the Port of Halifax for the year 1757, and of the produce exported; and the following papers received since the Board's adjournment were read, viz.:–
Letter from Lieutenant Colonel Monckton to the Secretary, dated 5th June, 1758, acknowledging the receipt of his letter dated March 8th, with the papers inclosed, respecting the method of defraying the expense of military services arising in that colony.
Letter from Mr. Monckton, Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, to the Board, dated August 14th, 1758, inclosing the accounts of the expences of services arising in that colony for the year 1757.
Ordered, that the said accounts be delivered to Mr. Parker, acting for Mr. Kilby, late agent for this settlement, and that he be directed to prepare an account in the usual form to be laid before Parliament.
The following letters from Mr. Paris to the Secretary in the form of caveats were read, and ordered to be entered upon the minutes, viz.:–
I desire this may stand by way of caveat in your office, that in case any representation or complaint is or shall be sent in against Jonathan Belcher, John Collier, Robert Grant and Charles Morris, Esquires, four of his Majesty's Council in the province of Nova Scotia, or against any of them, I may have notice, and a copy, of the same, before any proceedings thereon, to the prejudice of the said Councillors or any of them.
I remain, Sir,
Your most obedient honourable servant,
Ferdinand John Paris,
Attorney of the said four Councillors.
Surry Street, Strand,
26th September, 1758.
To John Pownall, Esquire, Secretary to the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations.
I desire this may stand as a caveat in your office, that in case any claim or memorial shall be sent in, claiming or demanding a right of precedency in the Council of Nova Scotia, for or on behalf of Benjamin Green, Esquire, against Jonathan Belcher, Esquire, in case of the death or absence from the province of his Majesty's Governor and Lieutenant Governor, I may have notice of the same, on Mr. Belcher's behalf, before any determination be come to thereon.
I am, Sir,
Your most obedient honourable servant,
Ferdinand John Paris,
Attorney for Mr. Belcher.
Surry Street, Strand,
26th September, 1758.
To John Pownall, Esquire, Secretary to the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations.
Tuesday, November 14, 1758
Read a letter from Charles Lawrence, Esquire, Governor of Nova Scotia, to the Board, dated September 26th, 1758, relating to a new Assembly being chosen; containing his observations on the expences of the colony, and inclosing:–
Estimate of the charge of supporting and maintaining the settlement of his Majesty's colony of Nova Scotia for the year 1759.
Lists of ships and vessels that have entered inwards and cleared outwards in the Port of Halifax from the 1st of January to the 31st of December, 1757.
Friday, December 1, 1758
Read a memorial of Mary Magdalen How, widow of Captain How, employed in his Majesty's service in Nova Scotia in 1749 and 1750, setting forth a demand for services performed and expences incurred by her said late husband, inclosing a state of her account with other papers and praying to be reimbursed.
Their lordships being informed by the Secretary that Mr. Grant, one of the Council of Nova Scotia, who appears to have examined and audited the accounts inclosed in the said memorial, was now in England, the Secretary was ordered to desire his attendance at the Board on Tuesday next, the 5th instant.
Tuesday, December 5, 1758
Their lordships took into consideration the memorial of Mary Magdalene How, widow of Captain How, employed in his Majesty's service in Nova Scotia in the years 1749 and 1750, mentioned in the minutes of Friday last; and Mr. Grant, one of the Council of that province, who appears to have examined and audited the accounts referred to in her memorial, attending as desired, was called in, and their lordships had some discourse with him thereon.
It appearing to their lordships, that the services, to which the demands of the memorialist are relative, were performed under the direction of General Cornwallis, whilst Governor of Nova Scotia, it was ordered that the Secretary do make enquiry of him concerning the said services and demands.
Board of Trade
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